Topic: Philosophical Terms to Study

Existentialism
Divine Command   
Utilitarianism   
Kantianism   
Justice (Fairness)   
Hedonism   
Strong Egoism   
Apathy   
Nihilism

Deontological or Moral Absolutism
Consequentialism
Virtue Ethics

Absurdism
Universalism
Liberal Christianity

Original Sin
Just War
Salvation
Redemption
Atonement
Divine Grace

Rationalist
Empiricism
Innate Idea
Blank Slate
Nature versus Nurture
Naturalist
Behaviorism

"The Five Ways"

Stoicism
Epicureans

Pantheism
Modernism
Lamentabili Sane: Condeming the Erros of the Modernists, Pius X July 3, 1907

Lamentabili Sane: Condeming the Errors of the Modernists, Pius X July 3, 1907 wrote:

58. Truth is no more immutable than man himself, since it evolved with him, in him, and through him. 59. Christ did not teach a determined body of doctrine applicable to all times and all men, but rather inaugurated a religious movement adapted or to be adapted to different times and places.

Relativism

Re: Philosophical Terms to Study

What philosophy do you follow?

grano salis


Books by Peter Kreeft:
Philosophy 101 by Socrates
Socrates Meets Machiavelli
Socrates Meets Marx
Socrates Meets Sartre
Socrates Meets Descartes
Socrates Meets Hume
Socrates Meets Kant
Socrates meets Jesus

Re: Philosophical Terms to Study

http://consc.net/pics/@@/dinosaurs.png

Re: Philosophical Terms to Study

http://iblog.stjschool.org/dsader/files/socrates.jpg

Re: Philosophical Terms to Study

Tom Morris, PHD author of "If Aristotle Ran General Motors" wrote:

How Do We Know Anything?
Leaps of Faith

It is sometimes rational to take a leap of faith. Now, whether this conclusion applies to controversial questions like those of religious belief and other deep philosophical issues is a matter yet to be determined. But philosopher William James shows us something eye-opening and very interesting. Looking for, gathering, and following the evidence is generally very important in life, but sometimes rational belief can operate without a dose of evidence sufficient to show us where the truth lies.

We just believe. And we do it all the time. We believe that our senses are sometimes reliable. We believe that the world has been around more than five minutes. We believe that our memories sometimes get it right. We are not for a minute convinced that life is really all a dream or a mass hallucination. We reason from the past to the future. And all without proof or evidence. We also confront Jamesian situations where belief properly outstrips evidence.

"Believe that life is worth living, and your belief will help create the fact." — William James

"Human beings, by changing the inner attitudes of their minds, can change the outer aspects of their lives."  — William James

"The greatest use of life is to spend it for something that will outlast it."  — William James

The human mind has its own basic grasp of reality that we don't fully understand. We seem to be made in such a way that our minds fit our most fundamental cognitive environment like a glove fits a hand. With the natural, unimpeded operation of our basic belief-forming abilities, along with enough care and attention in exercising them properly, we can get most basic things right. We can rationally believe. And we can know.

"It is not enough to have a good mind. The main thing is to use it well." — Descartes

What are you launching out to believe in your life? What are you seeking to know? How well are you using your mind in discovering the truth that you are here to know?

Re: Philosophical Terms to Study

http://www.calpoly.edu/~mcarlton/riddles.html


The Two Guards (a 2000-year-old classic)
You stand at a fork in the road. Next to each of the two forks, there stands a guard. You know the following things: 1. One path leads to Paradise, the other to Death. From where you stand, you cannot distinguish between the two paths. Worse, once you start down a path, you cannot turn back. 2. One of the two guards always tells the truth. The other guard always lies. Unfortunately, it is impossible for you to distinguish between the two guards.
You have permission to ask one guard one question to ascertain which path leads to Paradise. Remember that you do not know which guard you're asking -- the truth-teller or the liar -- and that this single question determines whether you live or die. The question is: What one question asked of one guard guarantees that you are led onto the path to Paradise, regardless of which guard you happen to ask?

Re: Philosophical Terms to Study

Philosophy Portal Wiki

Re: Philosophical Terms to Study

Simon from LOTF wrote:

You Scored as Existentialism
Your life is guided by the concept of Existentialism: You choose the meaning and purpose of your life.
“Man is condemned to be free; because once thrown into the world, he is responsible for everything he does.”
“It is up to you to give [life] a meaning.” --Jean-Paul Sartre
“It is man's natural sickness to believe that he possesses the Truth.” --Blaise Pascal

Existentialism   
100%
Kantianism   
75%
Strong Egoism   
55%
Utilitarianism   
50%
Justice (Fairness)   
30%
Divine Command   
30%
Apathy   
15%
Hedonism   
15%
Nihilism   
5%

Re: Philosophical Terms to Study

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utilitarianism_(book) wrote:

"it is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied"

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Plato's "Allegory of the Cave" from "Book VII" of The Republic

Re: Philosophical Terms to Study

Your Dog Thinks You Are "Super Cool"

Re: Philosophical Terms to Study

The Heinz Dilemma

The Heinz Dilemma wrote:

A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to produce. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife.
Should Heinz have broken into the store to steal the drug for his wife? Why or why not?

Re: Philosophical Terms to Study

What does it mean to be human?

"What does it mean to be human? Centuries worth of scientific thought, artistic tradition and spiritual practice have attempted to answer this most fundamental question about our existence. And yet the diversity of views and opinions is so grand it has made that answer remarkably elusive. While we don’t necessarily believe such an “answer” — singular and conclusive by definition — even exists, today we make an effort to understand the wholeness of a human being without compartmentalizing humanity into siloed views of the brain, emotion, morality and so forth. So we look at this complex issue from three separate angles — evolutionary biology, philosophy and neuroscience — hoping weave together a somewhat more holistic understanding of the whole."


http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2010/09/07/what-does-it-mean-to-be-human/

http://www.ted.com/talks/view/lang/en//id/102

Re: Philosophical Terms to Study

Re: Philosophical Terms to Study

Take a "What Philosophy Am I?" Quiz/Survey

Here is one I like:
http://www.helloquizzy.com/tests/the-wh … sophy-test

And a few others...
http://www.gotoquiz.com/which_philosopher_are_you
http://www.playbuzz.com/julianr12/what- … are-you-in
http://www.quotev.com/quiz/2814231/What … y-are-you/
http://www.philosophyexperiments.com/he … ault2.aspx

And my favourite so far...
http://selectsmart.com/philosophy/