Topic: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

Modernism

Research these thinkers: Karl Marx, the naturalist Charles Darwin, the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, and the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. What were their most important insights? What previous explanations did their writings reject? How do their ideas affect the world today?

2 (edited by twilson 2012-05-03 12:43:35)

Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

Karl Marx's most important contribution is his book written called "The Communist Manifesto". The best point he outlined as a contribution would be free education for all children in public schools because everybody has a right to learn.

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Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

Karl Marx
He was heavily critical of the current socio-economic form of society, capitalism, he called it the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie", believing it to be run by the wealthy classes purely for their own benefit, and predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, it would inevitably produce internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system, socialism.  He argued that under socialism society would be governed by the working class in what he called the "dictatorship of the proletariat", the "workers state" or "workers' democracy".

Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

klumayko wrote:

Karl Marx
He was heavily critical of the current socio-economic form of society, capitalism, he called it the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie", believing it to be run by the wealthy classes purely for their own benefit, and predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, it would inevitably produce internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system, socialism.  He argued that under socialism society would be governed by the working class in what he called the "dictatorship of the proletariat", the "workers state" or "workers' democracy".

Excellent. Describe a modern "worker"? Why would Marx want to redefine "worker"?

Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

twilson wrote:

Karl Marx's most important contribution to communism is his book written called "The Communist Manifesto" which outlined various ways that the world could improve if they changed to a socialist government "dictatorship of the proletariat" which would benefit all society instead of the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie" which only benefitted the rich people of society.

Describe a modern rich person? Why would Marx want to redefine "rich"?

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Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

Charles Darwin established that all species once came from a common ancestor. He noted that evolution took place from a process called natural selection. His book on the Origin of Species talks about the transmutations of all species.

Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

twilson wrote:

Karl Marx's most important contribution is his book written called "The Communist Manifesto". The best point he outlined as a contribution would be free education for all children in public schools because everybody has a right to learn.

Excellent, let's discuss free education further.

What does modern education, that is not free, look like?  What do you know about education that would have to change to meet Marx's "free educatioin"? Hint: try using "free" as a verb.

Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

apoliakiwski wrote:

Charles Darwin established that all species once came from a common ancestor. He noted that evolution took place from a process called natural selection. His book on the Origin of Species talks about the transmutations of all species.

What questions does Modern Man ask now that he no longer comes from God/Garden?

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Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

Unlike the peaceful Utopian socialists, Marx envisioned and predicted a great upheaval between the classes where the proletariat, or working class, would overturn the bourgeoisie, and the world would eventually commune together in harmony after a brief period of dictatorship.

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Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

Karl Marx would see a modern worker as a laborer, or someone in the work force, that could make their own decisions. His "Workers state" would be ran by people who actually experience their live style and go through their hardships, rather than have a person who has never been a worker tell them what is best for them. Before workers were considered uncivilized, laborers who, like a small child, had to be told what to do in order to keep them on the 'right' track. Marx believes that this description is inaccurate because workers are fully capable of making the best decisions for themselves, rather than be continually treated like a immature child.

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Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

Sigmund Freud developed the theories about the unconscious mind and the mechanism of repression. He created a clinical method for treating Psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. The Idea of has declined as a therapeutic practice, it has helped inspire the development of many other forms of psychotherapy

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Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

Sigmund Freud was an important contributor to the early development of psychology. His use of talk therapy, or free association, to solve psychological problems along with his ideas about the unconscious including the role of repression, denial, sublimation, and projection are some of his more memorable contributions. Freud developed the now famous technique of free association. This technique encourages the patient to speak aloud about any thoughts or images that drifted into their mind. For example, Freud would say evil and the patient would reply the first word that came to mind. He believed that slips of the tongue, or forgetful lapses, are far from random and accidental, but are instead manifestations of the unconscious mind at work.

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Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

Karl Marx's most important contribution is his book written called "The Communist Manifesto". The best point he outlined as a contribution would be free education for all children in public schools because everybody has a right to learn. Modern education today we have to pay school fees in order to go to school and be provided with the teachers and supplies we need. To achieve free schooling we would have to increase taxes to provide that opportunity to children in the future.

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Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

Marx's theories about society, economics and politics, known as Marxism, hold that all societies progress through class struggle. A conflict between an ownership class which controls production and a lower class which produces the labour for such goods.

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Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

Charles Darwin published his theory with compelling evidence for evolution in his 1859 book 'On the Origin of Species', overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species. By the 1870s the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favored competing explanations and it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. Darwin made people re evaluate their previous ideas regarding evolution, he challenged old ideas in place of the discoveries he found.

Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

cdejong wrote:

...dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst...

How important has psychology become for modern man? Where would all man's problems, therefore all man's solutions reside? How is this different from, say, renaissance man?

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Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

Some questions could be,

-How did the Earth transform?
- Are we the only living species in the universe?
- Does something come from nothing?
-Do we have immortal soul?

Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

klumayko wrote:

Karl Marx would see a modern worker as a laborer, or someone in the work force, that could make their own decisions. His "Workers state" would be ran by people who actually experience their live style and go through their hardships, rather than have a person who has never been a worker tell them what is best for them. Before workers were considered uncivilized, laborers who, like a small child, had to be told what to do in order to keep them on the 'right' track. Marx believes that this description is inaccurate because workers are fully capable of making the best decisions for themselves, rather than be continually treated like a immature child.

What would Marx suggest the role of religion should be in the life of a worker?

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Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

After the publish of The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx's philosophy of communism spread throughout the world. The Manifesto resulted in world change in form of government. This was important to Karl Marx's theory regarding the redistributing the wealth of people, abolishing private property, and promoting equality between all social classes. It presents an approach to the class struggle and the problems of capitalism rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms.

20 (edited by kchoi 2012-05-03 13:03:41)

Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

"And, of course, the most tangible evidence of modernism -- or at least the one with which we are most familiar -- is in the world of art. The Impressionists, centered in Paris, broke with a tradition stretching back centuries. As one of them wrote: "Don't proceed according to rules and principles but paint what you observe and feel." Impressionist painters like Pierre Auguste Renoir (1841-1919), Claude Monet (1840-1926), Édouard Manet (1832-1883), Edgar Degas (1834-1917) and Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), tried to capture movement, color and light as it appeared to the mind at one specific moment. It is, in other words, the representation of a brief moment of time and space as perceived by the artist."

+)In art Modernism explicitly rejects the ideology of realism, and makes use of the works of the past, through the application of reprise, incorporation, rewriting, recapitulation, revision and parody in new forms. Modernism also rejects the lingering certainty of Enlightenment thinking, as well as the idea of a compassionate, all-powerful Creator

Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

krochford wrote:

... commune together in harmony ...

Marx was not the first to suggest this idea was possible, but how does Modern Man achieve this, what must be rejected to get there?

Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

apoliakiwski wrote:

Some questions could be,

-How did the Earth transform?
- Are we the only living species in the universe?
- Does something come from nothing?
-Do we have immortal soul?

How does modern man answer these question? Where do they search?

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Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

Marx would probably suggest that all workers can pursue the religion of their choice, and if they choose to incorporate that into their way of ruling it would be fine as long as it does not negatively affect other people. If they choose to, for example, create a law stating that you cannot work on Sundays because it is a holy day of rest then they can make that law. Marx would hope that they not abuse this new found freedom to make their own government, and decide for themselves what is best. Their religion is their decision, the laws should reflect the wants and needs of the workers, including religious freedoms, like certain days off.

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Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

KARL MARX

Marx's most important insight: "The end justifies the means". Which is directly linked to Consequentialism. Consequentialism based on the ideal that a morally right deed is one that will produce a good outcome, or consequence. Marx's explanations completely rejected the ideal of Capitalism. Capitalism, according to Marx, utilized an industrial society’s working class by giving a portion of the value of the workers’ output.  The capitalists, driven by greed for money, use money to get more money and their engine for money growth is fueled by surplus value stolen from the working class.

Marx's theory of history consisted of the idea that forms of society rise and fall as they further and then block the development of human power.
History and economics come together in Marx's prediction of the inevitable economic breakdown of capitalism, to be replaced by communism.


[*]He was the one of the first to make humanity understand that the working people of the country were the ones who had the power.
[*]He strongly believed that the socialism would trump capitalism. 
[*]He also believed that society would be completely classless and the working class will rise above all others.

Re: Modernism: Marx, Darwin, Nietzsche, Freud

kmarsh wrote:

... free association ...

Excellent. Look at a typical Jackson Pollack painting. What does it make you think of straight away?